Sequence-specific nuclease-based genome targeting systems, i.e., TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9, often cause uniform biallelic and heterozygous mutations in diploid organisms. Direct sequencing of PCR products containing such mutations results in superimposed sequencing chromatograms. The Degenerate Sequence Decode (DSDecode) program serves to decode automatically sequencing chromatograms with biallelic, heterozygous, and homozygous mutations into allelic sequences.

The SaDSDecode is designed for decoding of low-quality sequencing files.

STEP 1 - Upload a reference sequence

Please enter an intact (wild-type) reference sequence of your target material.

It must completely cover the sequencing range of the ab1 file


STEP 2 - Enter the anchor sequence

Please enter an anchor sequence (10-20 nt):

For anchor and degenerate sequences, please refer to the below references:

Ma X., Chen L., Zhu Q., Chen Y., and Liu Y.-G. 2015. Rapid Decoding of Sequence-Specific Nuclease-Induced Heterozygous and Biallelic Mutations by Direct Sequencing of PCR Products. Mol. Plant (DOI:

STEP 3 - Enter the degenerate sequence

Please enter a degenerate sequence (10-20 nt) as the following case format:


Liu W., Xie X., Ma X., Li J., Chen J., and Liu Y.-G. 2015. DSDecode: A Web-based Tool for Decoding of Sequencing Chromatograms for Genotyping of Targeted Mutations. Mol. Plant (DOI:

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